About Paul Snoey

I have a degree in Biology and Environmental Science from WSU Vancouver
I am very fond of Gee Creek and Allen Canyon Creek and do a lot of volunteer work to restore these creeks.

USPS CELEBRATING POLLINATORS

 

This sheet of postage stamps was recently released by the USPS.  If celebrates the beauty of both flowers and their insect pollinators. The twenty sheet stamp has Monarch butterflies on 12 stamps and honey bees on the other 8.  The choice of these two insects is appropriate because both insects are in decline.  Many other insect populations are in decline also.  Because of the lack of insects some bird populations, which are dependent on insects, are down too . Each stamp states:  “protect pollinators”    Providing forage for pollinating insects free of pesticides can  help.  In the past two years I’ve given away a few hundred seed packets and plants of narrow leafed milkweed.  These milkweeds provide food for Monarch caterpillars and the flowers of milkweeds are great for many pollinating insects.  Next spring I should have another batch of plants to give away.  People with milkweed plants that grew and flowered should find they will  do even  better next year.  The Ridgefield Post Office is sold out of these pretty stamps but have more ordered.

 

Stream Bank Erosion by Gee Creek Trail

                         The stream bank has receded in several places and threatens the new trail

The stream bank along sections of the new trail from Division Street to Heron Ridge Drive has areas that are eroding badly.  In mid- October the section in the photo had only one small section that had collapsed next to the silt fence.  Last weekend things began to get much worse, and on Tuesday, many sections of stream bank began to collapse in several places over a distance of 400 feet or so.  Gee Creek has not had high flows yet so that is not the cause of the sudden collapses.  We had a severe drought last summer that dried the soils here, and we’ve had enough rain to finally wet the soil.  This may be making it heavier and softer and is exacerbating the stream bank collapse from the stream undercutting the bank.   Public Works Director Bryan Kast indicated yesterday that a hydrologist consultant is working on getting some stream bank stabilization done here before the end of the year.

We are now getting into the wettest time of the year.  With soils saturated and higher stream flows on Gee Creek, it may be very difficult to get any stabilization done.   It’s mid-November and we have several more months of possible wet weather with  higher stream flows.  In several areas the changes to the stream bed are forcing water into and along the stream bank itself.  The best hope is to get through the  wet season and then look to find a way to make a real fix.  Unfortunately, a real fix over such a great distance could be very expensive

Another area of bank collapse:  Note how flow is undercutting bank

Climate Change, The Columbia River, and Ridgefield

The above graphic shows Columbia river predicted flows in the 2050s.  The time of peak flows from spring snow melt is earlier  and summer flows are much less (source UW)

The Columbia River responds to the Pacific Ocean tides all the way to  the Bonneville Dam.  At Ridgefield at midnight Monday night, the high tide is expected to bring the river to 6.56 feet and at 3 AM the low tide is expected to be 3.84 feet.  Its not a great difference but it is enough to reverse flows of Lake River into Vancouver Lake and even Gee Creek into the pond/wetland complex upstream.  In addition to tides, the Columbia is greatly effected by the flow of water coming down the Columbia River.  Last winter and spring, the flows from the heavy rains brought the Columbia River here to  a peak of about 16 feet (flood stage is 17 feet).

The latest climate assessment released Friday by the Trump Administration showed a sea level rise of 1.6 to as much as 8 feet by 2100. NOAA has an interactive site to show the impact of sea level rises for different areas.  To show how it will impact Ridgefield, Lake River, and the refuge click this:  Columbia river sea rise

The site is interactive and set  for 3 feet but it can be changed from none to six feet.  You can also zoom in and out and change location.  At three feet there is a real change is the level of water in both the Carty and River S Units. The Columbia River will rise to 6 feet and more with time.  The only question  is how soon.  Sea level rise will continue for hundreds of years no matter what.  That is because the carbon dioxide already released will  stay with us a very long time.

The Columbia River reverses flow from the ocean to as much as 53 river  miles upstream  and salt water intrusion  is about 23 river miles upstream.  With sea level rise, the flow reversal will increase  carrying  salt water further upstream as well.   The difference between high and low tides will likely increase.  With the loss of snow and ice in the Columbia Mountains and Rockies, the summer flows are projected to decrease by as much as  50 % by the  2050’s .  With lower flows and higher river levels the resident time for water to travel from Bonneville Dam to the ocean will increase.  This may mean a warmer  slower river and could create serious problems such as having  less oxygen and encouraging invasive species.   Having the peak flows as much as a month or more earlier would put the annual crest into the rainy season and thus an increased risk of flooding.  This would certainly be exacerbated by having this on a river higher from sea level rise. It will likely mean that the height of a 100 or a 500 year flood will have to change.   Building in areas above a flood zone may find those zones rising.

The material for this article was gleaned from many different sources.  The impacts of a river higher from sea level rise with changes in seasonal flows will have profound impacts for both communities and natural areas.   What really seems to be missing is a more comprehensive study that better quantifies and qualifies the predicted changes.

 

 

 

 

 

 

A Fence to Protect Trees Installed

 

In 2005, Fish First donated 50 cedars for stream restoration of Gee Creek.  In addition, the City of Ridgefield provided $250 for purchase of trees. They were planted along the creek just upstream and downstream from the Heron Ridge Bridge. By 2009 all the trees had been cut down by beavers except for 2 cedars they had somehow missed. Many of the cedars and firs that Tevis Laspa planted were also taken by beavers. Many of the ones I planted  have been taken.  We’ve learned that trees need to be placed in cages or behind fences.

Tevis and I  recently installed 450 feet of fence along Gee creek to protect the trees that are going to be planted.  A few areas north of the Heron Ridge Storm Water Facility have been cleared of blackberries and brush in preparation for planting this winter and spring.  Tevis will provide 50 cedars and 50 firs.  I’ve ordered 50 alders, 50 ash, and 25 nine bark bushes.  Along the fence, we intend to saturate the line with willow and cottonwood posts to help with stream bank stabilization.

 

How to Bury a Walnut

Find a good place

Dig a hole

Put in the walnut

Backfill the hole

Carefully arrange the sod to hide the nut.

Last:  Remember where it is buried

 

 

Some Information about Climate Change

The climate changes we are experiencing are serious and need action to be done soon, even yesterday.  This posting  is a follow up to the post done a few days ago.  The next post will discuss some of the changes that are  likely already happening in Ridgefield and what is likely to happen in the future—Paul Snoey

 

First: The site below is an ingenious animation of  the history of the levels of carbon dioxide on our planet for the last 800,000 years.   It plots carbon dioxide levels at points from the South Pole on the left of the screen to the North Pole on the Right of the screen,  There is a great deal of information in this animation.  Please don’t hesitate to pause or watch it again.

https://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/ccgg/trends/history.html

Second:  “Climate Change: Evidence and Causes is a jointly produced publication of The US National Academy of Sciences and The Royal Society. Written by a UK-US team of leading climate scientists and reviewed by climate scientists and others, the publication is intended as a brief, readable reference document for decision makers, policy makers, educators, and other individuals seeking authoritative information on the some of the questions that continue to be asked.”  From this site you can watch on-line or download.  It’s interesting that this was published in 2014.  It’s 2017 and some things are already different.  For example, C02 has increased a bit.

https://www.nap.edu/catalog/18730/climate-change-evidence-and-causes

Third:  A discussion from Wikipedia about the global warming controversy

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_warming_controversy

Fourth:  The last site is given with  reluctance.   It is not good news.  It says that the changes we have set in motion are going to persist for a very long time, even if  all  climate changing emissions are immediately stopped.  As bad as that is, it will be much worse if nothing is done at all.

http://theconversation.com/what-would-happen-to-the-climate-if-we-stopped-emitting-greenhouse-gases-today-35011

 

 

 

 

Climate Change and Carbon Dioxide

Mauna Loa CO2

Measurement of Atmospheric CO2 at the Summit of Mauna Loa in Hawaii since 1957

Since the beginning of the industrial revolution, the level of global carbon dioxide has increased  40%.  It is increasing at more than 5% a decade, and  in spite of a lot of discussion and proposed actions, the increase is unabated.  It is higher than it has been in more than eight hundred thousand years.  As a result of the increase the worlds ocean  temperatures has risen  on average 1.1 degrees Fahrenheit and the land   temperature has risen an average of  1.4 degrees Fahrenheit.  Much of the increase has occurred since 1970.  There is really little  debate in the scientific communities worldwide that the cause of the increase is mostly due to the increase in carbon dioxide.

Three Hurricanes in the Atlantic this year were categories 4 or 5.  Hurricanes Harvey, Irma, and Maria were very destructive.  All formed over waters that  were warmer than average.  Hurricanes and typhoons get their energy by removing heat from ocean water.  With higher sea surface temperatures these storms can rapidly intensify.  If the water is warmer at higher latitudes they can stay stronger.  Hurricane Ophelia became a category 3 hurricane in the northeast Atlantic and did great damage to Ireland.  It was the strongest hurricane  ever to form in the northeast Atlantic.

On land,  many areas are having record heat and drought.  In our area, the years 2009 , 2015, and 2017 had the highest numbers of days with temperatures over 90 degrees.  The extended summer drought  and heat in the Columbia River Gorge set the stage for a fire that began on September 2nd and burned an area almost 50,000 acres.  The fires in Northern and Southern California burned thousands of homes and killed dozens of people.  Like here,  California experienced an extremely hot summer.  Portugal and Spain have had terrible wildfires that have killed  well over 100 people.  In the rest of the European Union,  the number of fires has doubled over the past few years.  The fire season is starting earlier and lasts longer.

There is an intense debate about climate change in the US.  Our president has placed many agencies in the hands of climate change deniers with ties to oil and coal.  Their claim is that the science is flawed and that there really is not a scientific consensus about climate change or even its causes.

The goal of the Paris accords, from  which Donald Trump has removed the United States, was to curb emissions world wide to prevent an increase of global temperatures of over 2 degrees Centigrade.   The scientific community argues that if emissions are not cut, our world could see a  temperature increase of 5 degrees Centigrade or more by 2100.

So, who to believe?  It may help to look at the evidence  and how it was obtained.  If it is so very important for the future of our planet, then it is worth taking time to consider it.  In the next post there will be some references to help with that.

 

SHINY GERANIUM A TREAT

These calves eagerly ate several bags of shiny geranium pulled by hand

Shiny geranium was first discovered in Ridgefield last year. It was found on Pioneer Street, in the Post office parking lot, and on six acres in Allen Canyon. A great deal of work and expense was spent to deal with it. Much of the effort was to get it before it went to seed. I did most of the work in Ridgefield and helped Les Greear treat it on his property. The seeds sprout after the first late summer/fall rains. After the first rains in mid September, we were disappointed to see so many new seedlings pop up.  We have begun treating them again.  This weed is spreading rapidly in  north Clark County and will probably become a  pest for Gee Creek and the Refuge in spite of our efforts.