A Final Word on I-1531

Tuesday of  this week is  the final day for voting. Many election issues seem very mean spirited and ugly this year.  In any case, it will  soon be over.   Initiative I-1531 was looking good in the polls at the beginning of October. However, the campaign against this initiative has now spent more than 31.5 million dollars and it has been almost all the big oil companies.  They have all those ads on TV and the big glossy mailers telling everyone how unfair it is and how much more we are all going to pay.  The reason big oil is fighting this initiative is because they see it as a threat.

We must stop increasing the levels of CO2 in our atmosphere and in our oceans.  The report issued  On October  by the International Panel On Climate Change  stated that we need to act very soon, within the next 12 years, to avoid some very serious consequences.  The Journal Nature published a new study on October 31 that says  that the amount of heat being put into our oceans is underestimated by as much as 60% and it will be even harder to meet the goals of the Paris Accords.

A comment about what the graph at the top of the page shows:   The level of CO2 is now well over 400 parts/million.  It is increasing at about 5% each decade.  The resident time of CO2 in the atmosphere is a very long time.  Even if we completely stop putting CO2 in the atmosphere, the level of CO2 will stay above 400 PPM for some time.  There is a lag time between adding CO2 into the atmosphere and oceans and its effects.  Thus, we need to act very soon.

One of the arguments against I-1531 is that it will raise rates.  But considering the future costs of not doing anything at all, that does not seem so bad.  If I 1531 turns out to be terrible, something can always be done, including an initiative to repeal it.  If we wait too long with emissions, there will be no repeal.

Contributed by Paul Snoey

Initiative 1631 For Clean Air



The above graph shows  the monthly averages for CO2 ending in September.  The levels of CO2 are higher than they were 3 million years ago.  The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change issued a report on October 8th.  It stated that the temperature increase since the industrial revolution is now at 1 degree centigrade and that change is responsible for many of the problems the world is seeing now.  The report  states that with the current increases of green house gases, especially CO2,  we will see a global temperature rise of another 0.5 degrees likely between 2030 and 2052.  The report states that a global warming of 2 degrees has profoundly more negative impacts than 1.5 degrees centigrade.   However, to hold global warming to only another 0.5 degrees will require some very drastic measures in reducing CO2 emissions.  That is, we would not only need to  stop CO2 emissions by 2050, but also possibly begin removing it from the atmosphere.  What the report says is very dire about the future.  In 2015 the Paris Accords was an agreement to limit global warming to 1.5 or 2.0 degrees. Letting CO2 continue  to rise at over 2 parts/million each year could see a temperature increase of 5 degrees Centigrade by 2100 and that would be catastrophic.

William Nordhaus was awarded the Nobel Prize in Economic Science this year.  It was for his work on the economy and climate change.  In 2012 he wrote an editorial entitled “Why The Global Warming Skeptics are wrong” He wrote:  “The cost of waiting fifty years to begin reducing CO2 emissions….. is $4.1 trillion.”   This was written six years ago and the latest economic costs cited by the IPCC are much higher.  In the same article he also wrote:  “The claim that….carbon taxes would be  ruinous or disastrous to our societies does not stand up to serious economic analysis.”

Initiative 1631 is not a carbon tax but a fee on  carbon dioxide generators.  The big oil companies have put in over $20 million to fight it.  There is a lot of money to be made by the fossil fuel industry and they don’t want to give that up.  However, we must get away from putting ever more CO2 into the air.  This fee will be a first in the nation and if passed will encourage other states.  We must do something very soon and I- 1631 is a  small start.   Let’s give it a chance.

Contributed by Paul Snoey


European Praying Mantis


If you’re a grasshopper this mantis  could be the last thing you see.  An ambush predator, mantises snatch their prey in those spiny forearms, and eat them alive.  European praying mantises are not native to our area but have become quite common.  They likely were introduced to help control pests.  In the past,  Fred Meyer has   sold mantis egg cases  in their garden stores.  Their value for controlling garden pests is questionable.  They disperse  after hatching, are cannibals, and eat good insects such as honey bees.

They hatch in spring, and after several molts become winged adults around the first of September.  Mantises are well known for their cannibalistic tendencies with many articles and nature documentaries showing the female devouring her smaller mate.  It may not be quite like that.  After all, a female mantis must at least have a mate if she is to have offspring and to do that she has to allow a male to climb onto her back.  Mating takes a long time, several hours.

The Nazarene Church across the street from  me used to have floodlights to light up the east side of the building.  The bright lights would attract the newly emerged adult mantises the first week of September.  A few years ago I collected three males and a female from the side of the church.  I put them all in a Styrofoam ice chest.  The next day, when I took off the lid I found all three males on the female’s back.  One was on the center and the other two were off to each side.  No body was eating anybody and they all were quiet.  Later, when I looked again,  one of the males was mating with the female and the other two were still in the chest but no longer with the female.  The virgin female likely puts  out a pheromone that helps males find her.  It may attenuate not only her behavior but that of the males as well.  Suppressing predatory behavior then facilitates successful mating.  After mating, the female can resume her predatory behavior and if the male hangs around too long she may eat him.

I’ve had the female in the above photo for a week or so.  She deposited an egg case on the side of a glass container.  It should contain over 100 eggs or so.  If you look carefully as you walk around Ridgefield, you may find one.  Ones on fences and fence posts are easier to find.  They are about one inch long.   Next spring the young will wriggle out of the egg case and dangle on slender threads as  their bodies harden.  Then, they need to get away from each other.

Contributed by Paul Snoey




Sunday Night Vaux Watch

Vaux swifts continue their evening display of aerial stunts before flying into the chimney for the night at N 8th Avenue and Pioneer Street. In addition to the birds,  a small group of neighbors have been watching them each evening.  As the sun sets a little earlier each night, the birds are also going down the chimney a little earlier as well.  This  evening it was just before 8PM.  Some of us were wondering why they are staying here for so long before migrating southward.  Perhaps they are fattening up for the journey. There are a many insects in the air now so perhaps that’s why.  My neighbors are putting  out a few extra chairs each evening for anyone who wants to watch.


Contributed by Paul Snoey

1991 Angels Rest Fire

I took this photo a couple of years or so  after a fire in the Columbia River Gorge had burned the top of Angel’s Rest from a fire that began at Multnomah Falls and then burned west a few miles.  I was very upset when it occurred and when they finally opened the trail to the summit there was nothing but bare ground and dead snags. A year later it was a riot of wildflowers.  In this area,  the ground was covered with red columbine with Columbia lilies sticking up.  In other areas, it was mostly purple penstemons or small yellow sunflowers.  It was a real pleasure to see.  After a few more years, as brush and trees began to grow, the wildflowers were mostly crowded out.   A year ago this week, Angel’s Rest was burned again and this time the fire covered a much larger area, almost 50,000 acres.  Angels Rest is still closed and may open later this year. I wonder how this area and the other areas are going to respond.   Will we see wildflowers and grasses covering and stabilizing these slopes as the gorge begins to heal itself?

Our planet has changed a lot since 1991.  It’s become hotter and stormier.  In addition to the gorge here last year,  there were those terrible fires in California both last year and this year.  There have been terrible fires in Canada, Spain, Portugal, Australia and many other countries in unprecedented sizes and numbers.  Hurricanes and typhoons are becoming larger and more destructive. Think of  hurricanes Katrina, Sandy, Harvey, and Maria. Then, super typhoon Haiyan that devastated the Philippines. We need to make some changes very soon to reduce green house gas emissions.  In November, we can approve Initiative 1631 which is a great start.  More importantly, we need elected leaders that accept and respond to what the scientific community is telling us about the causes of climate change.

~ Contributed by Paul Snoey


Vaux Swifts Roosting In Downtown Chimney


There are Vaux Swifts roosting in a chimney on the NE corner of N 8th Avenue and Pioneer Street.  The west side of the house has an ornate fireplace and chimney built of exotic stones including several pieces of petrified wood.  It is also the nightly home to a couple hundred Vaux Swifts.  They perform an acrobatic display for several minutes in the sky overhead as these fast flyers swoop and dart about.  Just before sunset, they drop into the chimney for the night. The photo was taken at 7:30 PM this evening.  They will be here for another month or so before migrating to Central and South America for the winter.  The Chapman Elementary School in Portland has the largest number of Vaux swifts in the United States.  Each September, hundreds of people have gathered  to watch them disappear down the school’s chimney.  We have a smaller version of that here.  The fireplace is not being used so the birds can roost without being roasted.

Contributed by Paul Snoey


Rain Shower After Drought

It has been very dry since April 15th. Other than a rainy Sunday in early June, it has been very hot, dry and windy. Gee Creek flows are much lower than last year at this time and most fish are not able to move upstream or downstream, being trapped in pools.

On Saturday afternoon we has a brief rainstorm that put a little less than 0.20″ in a half hour or so. It was enough to charge the city’s storm water system. When it has been dry for a while there is a build up of pollutants on the streets and other hard surfaces that drain to the storm water system.


The photo above was taken Saturday afternoon as the rain shower was ending.  The plume of sediment is the discharge of the storm sewer pipe from Old Town Ridgefield.  It collects drainage from Pioneer Street to Division Street and between North 5th Avenue to North Main Avenue.

The photo above was taken below the Heron Ridge Bridge and shows the storm water being mixed into the stream flow.  This is the entire creek flow.  Since the flow on Gee Creek is so very low this year there is less dilution of any storm water pollution that enters the  creek.


The photo above is at the storm water pipe in the Heron Ridge Storm Water Facility where it just enters.  The foam is likely from detergents people use when washing their vehicles.  Any thing on any surface that drains to the street ends up in the storm water system.


This photo is of the pond in the Heron Ridge Facility after the rain shower.  Its interesting that this pond had been dry for several weeks.  Consider what may be in this water.  The presence of soaps and detergents seems obvious.  It also could have doggy doo, herbicides and fertilizers leached from peoples yards.  That’s the value of a treatment facility.  If it is working properly, most of the  contaminants  will be removed before being put into the creek

I introduced myself to new public works director Justin Clary in June of 2004 as part of a senior project  at WSU.  I told him that old town storm water pollution was a serious problem and encouraged him to consider building a facility to treat it.  The city created a storm water utility in September of 2005  and began billing residents for storm water in 2006.  If the funds collected had been managed better and if proper maintenance had been done with the collection system and facilities, the city could have been treating most of its storm water by now.

         – Contributed by Paul Snoey


From Knotweed to Trees


One of the goals of stream restoration of Gee Creek is to rid the creek of weed species such as Japanese knotweed and blackberries and replace them with native species of trees and other plants.  This photo was taken in June of 2009.  It was  a dense tangle of Japanese knotweed, blackberries, and nettles.  The tops are about 13 feet above ground and many were bound together by morning glory vines. Getting rid of the knotweed and other weeds in the watershed was difficult.

The photo above is the same view after the knotweed ,blackberries, and nettles were removed.  The first trees planted here were willows and a few cottonwoods.  Later, Tevis planted cedars.  However, the fence along the creek was not a good one and eventually beavers took most of the cedars and many of the willows.  It was distressing to see the hard work lost.

The last photo was taken earlier this week.  Last fall, a good fence was built from here to the heron ridge bridge.  It has been successful, at least so far, in keeping out beavers.  There’s lots of new trees put in this spring  from here into the city’s storm water facility.  In time, the hope is to see a dense stand of trees all along Gee Creek from the east end of Abrams Park to the refuge.  There is a great deal more work to do that and many problems to overcome.  The photos are from Tevis Laspa’s property.

Contributed by Paul Snoey




Mosquitos Are Here

There were some biting mosquitoes in my yard this morning and a few got in the house. Later, working near Gee Creek, there were many more, swarming  and biting through a thick t-shirt.  I had swatted one earlier and took a photograph to ID it later.   Every few years, in the weeks before July Fourth, Ridgefield is plagued with mosquitos.  This could be one of those years.


From an article in Wikipedia, a drawing of a flood mosquito was a good match,  Flood mosquitoes lay their eggs on moist ground that is likely to flood later.  It has been very dry in Ridgefield from mid-April until today’s rain.  However, since the Columbia River has been high this spring, much of the refuge has been under water until a few days ago.  This could be the source of our mosquitos. In checking with the county mosquito control board, it was noted that the county does not spray for mosquitos.  Rather, they go after the larva by treating wet areas.  With much of the refuge being flooded  this spring, that would have been unlikely.

County mosquito control  states that there is no current threat of Zika Virus or West Nile Virus for Clark County residents.  So they are just annoying.  Vexans is derived from the Latin word meaning to annoy.    It’s early in the season but we will know soon just how annoying they are going to be.

Contributed by Paul Snoey

Coho in Abrams Park

The photo above was taken Monday from the footbridge going into Abrams Park.  If you are on the bridge and go to the right side on the upstream side you can see them.  Look under a dead blackberry stem hanging out over the water. This small school has been there for several weeks.  The incubator is below Reimann Road.  We were given 10,000 eggs in January and 50,000 in February. So, that is the most we’ve  ever been given. The fish have distributed themselves from below the incubator down to the refuge.  The first year or so these small fish remain in this part of the creek.  Then, next year, they will begin their Journey to the Pacific ocean.  Conditions in Gee Creek are good.  However, we  have only  had three inches of rain in April and stream flows are much lower than last year.  It would not be good to have another hot and dry summer.

contributed by Paul Snoey

A Killdeer Nest

I went down to the Port Waterfront area to find and photograph some trilliums in the woods near the Port. I did not find them but came across a killdeer along the Railroad tracks on the way back. As soon as I saw the bird I looked down and saw the four eggs in the nest.  I pulled out my camera a took a picture standing over the nest.

The killdeer walked towards me and when only  a few feet away began its wounded bird routine

Instead of the broken wing routine, it spread it’s wings and tail feathers.  It’s a behavior they use to draw predators away from their nest.  When  a predator leaves the nest area and approaches the bird, it suddenly flies away.

When I walked away from the nest and was about 10 feet or so away,  it calmly sat  back on its nest as if nothing was wrong.  Male and female killdeers look alike, take turns incubating the eggs, and the incubation takes about 4 weeks. The chicks are precocious, born with their eyes open, and can feed themselves within a few hours after hatching.  The parents stay with the chicks for about one month until they are fledged and  can take care of themselves.  There are many nests now along the tracks, around the port area, and  the marina too.  Its best to try not to disturb them during the nesting season. If you get near the nest they usually get up and walk quickly away. The eggs are very hard to see as they are well camouflaged.

~contributed by Paul Snoey

Voluneers Plant Trees on Gee Creek

Raul Moreno, Tevis Laspa, and I led a volunteer effort to plant trees to enhance Gee Creek last week-end. The  other volunteers were Bob Wallis and Jane Vail of Wallis Engineering, Randy Wray, Dustin and Blake DeMars,  and John Schiessl. We put approximately 180 trees in the ground.  They are  a mixture of Douglas fir, western red cedar, Oregon ash, and red alder.  These are all native trees.  In addition, a few giant sequoias were  added to the Dan Robinson Memorial in the park.  Twenty five of the most vulnerable trees were placed in cages in areas where beavers are most active.  Trees were planted in Abrams Park along the trail just north of the entrance, along the creek just south of the Heron Ridge Bridge,in the Heron Ridge Storm water facility, and on three properties downstream from the facility.  The trees were provided by Raul, Tevis, and  I.  The fencing for the cages was donated by Carol Witek and Tevis provided the posts for the cages.

The effort is to replace weeds and brush with native trees and other vegetation.  The value of trees is to prevent erosion, provide shade, and increased humidity on the creek itself.  Other values would be to make the trail along Gee Creek more pleasing and long lived trees act as sinks to remove carbon dioxide from the air.  If the trees being planted now are cared for they will play an important role in restoring the Gee Creek and  its’ floodplain.  The critical thing is to get them past the first year or two when they are the most vulnerable.

Contributed by Paul Snoey

First Day of Spring Sunset

    Yesterday, everywhere on our planet, the sun set was due west.  If you were standing on the equator yesterday the sun would have been directly overhead at noon and then gone straight down in the west.  In Ridgefield yesterday, the sun at noon would have been about 45 degrees above the horizon in the south and it would have gone down at a 45 degree angle and set due west.  On the first day of summer the sun here will be at 68 degrees above the horizon at noon(45 + 23 degrees) and would set at 23 degrees to the north of due west.   At the equator on the first day of summer, you would see the sun at 67 degrees above the horizon but in the north(90 – 23).  Sunset at the equator would be 23 degrees to the north of west.  Even though the earth turns once a day and half the earth is in sun and half in shadow, the tilt of the earth makes for a 16 hour day in summer instead of just a 12 hour day.  In the summer the northern hemisphere is very productive for growth of plants because of the long day and  the tilt of the earth give us.  Can you dig it?

~ Contributed by Paul Snoey

Planting on Gee Creek Trail

The Lower Columbia Estuary Partnership sponsored a tree and bush planting Saturday for the new section of the Gee Creek Trail between Abrams Park and Heron Ridge Drive. McKenzie Miller, Senior Environmental Educator for the partnership, lead the group of 40 volunteers for planting.   On Friday  the locations of where  the different trees and plants were to go was flagged by   Samantha Dumont the Volunteer Coordinator for the Estuary Partnership.   Some of the volunteers were Cub Scout Pack 303 of Ridgefield.  This is the first all girls group in the scouts now that boy scouts can have girls.  Instead of the usual March rain, it was nice and sunny.    Among the trees and plants  put in the ground were Hooker’s willow, Douglas Fir, Big Leaf Maple, and Red Alder.  Several tall Oregon grape plants were put in the ground as well.

The next planting event with LCEP will be having students from Union Ridge Elementary plant the remaining trees and  plants later this month.  To fully restore this area will take a lot more work and commitment.

Erosion Control Project Continues

The Erosion Control Project for Gee Creek has begun with root wads beginning to be placed in the creek. This is the first erosion control project for the creek.  It’s success or failure could determine how other projects are done since there are several more areas that have problems.  The main questions are:

Will this work? The goal here is to stop the  erosion that been eating several feet of stream bank each year.

How expensive is it?   The cost of this project is important since there are other areas nearby with problems as well.

What will the creek look like and what more can be done here after the project has been finished?  We all want the trail along the creek to look natural and pleasant.  So what can be done when the project is completed to  further enhance the area?